Paediatric Skin Problems

Nappy Rash

Neonates are typically colonized by a Candida fungus as they pass through the birth canal. The risk for thrush is increased if Mom has an active vaginal yeast infection. Candida frequently inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of many healthy infants that show no signs.

Nappy rash is an inflammatory eruption of the skin in the napkin area. The skin is reddend and may have blisters that cover the lower abdomen, genitals and thighs. The folds remain unaffected.

The occurrence of nappy rash is caused by the interaction of several factors:

Friction of the diaper to skin or skin to skin may be a factor.

Skin wetness enhances the skin’s susceptibility to abrasion.

Urine and faeces aggravate due to wetness. Faeces also has digestive enzymes which can cause skin irritation.

The organism involved is mainly the Candida fungus, but it can be both bacterial and fungal


Keep the area dry.


Mila are very common in the new born. They are one to two millimeter keratin filled cysts on cheeks, chin and nose.

Diagnosis is clinical.

No treatment is necessary.


Thrush is a white film on the insides of the cheeks and tongue occurring in the new born period. It is caused by a fungus, usually Candida albicans

Thrush can cause a new born to have difficulty feeding. The nipples of a breast fed mother can also be affected and need to be treated at the same time as the baby.

Thrush is treated with antifungal therapy, most often with an oral suspension or gel. It is easily treated.

Erythema toxicum

Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a benign self-limited, asymptomatic skin condition that only occurs during the neonatal period (first two weeks of life) . There are small red papules, vesicles and sometimes pustules which are surrounded by a distinctive red halo. They disappear , often within a few hours, and reappear elsewhere on the body.

There is no treatment for this benign skin rash.

Scaly Scalp in Children

There are a few different reasons for a scaly scalp in children:


It is best to see a doctor/paediatrician to make the right diagnosis, that the proper therapy can be started.